Sensor networks can be wired or wireless. Wired sensor networks use ethernet cables to connect sensors. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) use technologies such as Bluetooth, cellular, wifi or near field communication (NFC) to connect sensors. WSNs are easier to deploy and maintain and offer better flexibility of devices.
There are two types of sensors: Direct Sensor: A sensor that can convert a non-electrical stimulus into an electrical signal with intermediate stages. Eg: thermocouple (temperature to voltage). Indirect Sensor: A sensor that multiple conversion steps to transform the measured signal into an electrical signal.
As shown in Figure 1, there are typically four main components in a sensor node , i.e., a sensing unit, a processing unit, a communication unit, and power supply.
Eric R. Fossum (born October 17, 1957) is an American physicist and engineer known for developing the CMOS image sensor. He is currently a professor at Thayer School of Engineering in Dartmouth College.
Printed, flexible (P/F) electronics and sensors can be manufactured using either a sheet-fed process, i.e. in batch fashion—similar to that used in the IC industry, where each substrate is made one step at a time—or a roll-to-roll (R2R) process, i.e. in continuous fashion. Each type of process has its pros and cons.
non-IoT elements can be parsed out by how devices communicate. Cellphones that send data synchronously using the Real-time Transport Protocol are considered non-IoT elements while devices communicating asynchronously could be. “It's literally a different type of data element that's on the network,” Ward says.
Sensors are connected through gateways, which enable them to relay the collected data to a server in the cloud. From there, the information is transmitted to your computer or cell phone so you have instant access to all monitored activities taking place.
Types of IoT DataStatus data: Status data is basic, raw data that communicates the status of a device or system. Automation data: This type of data is created by automated devices and systems such as smart thermostats and automated lighting.
A cellular module integrates some hardware and software solutions on top of the chipset to improve your experience adding cellular functionality. It's likely to include an onboard microprocessor, memory, a power supply connector, and antenna port, and more.
An SoC, or System-on-a-Chip, integrates almost all of these components (chipset features) into a single silicon chip. Along with a processor, the SoC usually contains a GPU (graphics processor), memory, USB controller, power management circuits, and wireless radios.iot sensor module