In many cases, these services are powered by a method of wirelessly transferring data called near-field communication (NFC). NFC isn't just useful on its own—it can also be used in conjunction with other cutting-edge technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT).
While the coverage is good, 4G is not the best option for many IoT devices because of higher module cost, high power consumption and often, there is no need for high-speed data connections.
Massive IoT refers to applications that are less latency sensitive and have relatively low throughput requirements, but require a huge volume of low-cost, low-energy consumption devices on a network with excellent coverage.
Back then, the idea was often called “embedded internet” or “pervasive computing”. But the actual term “Internet of Things” was coined by Kevin Ashton in 1999 during his work at Procter&Gamble.
Zigbee network is more reliable compared to Wi-Fi network. Wi-Fi network is less reliable as compared to Zigbee network. 11. It requires low bandwidth but greater than Bluetooth's bandwidth most of time.
Thanks to the inclusion of M2M communication function, the 5G terminals which locate within the coverage of the ZigBee networks are able to join the existing ZigBee networks.
“5G will cause explosive growth of IoT devices in the market,” Engarto says. The ultra-low latency of 5G will pave the way for newer use cases such as augmented and virtual reality, “and opens up newer ground-breaking possibilities in digitizing verticals like health care, smart manufacturing, and education,” she says.
As it prepares for the launch of a smart home interoperability standard, the Zigbee Alliance has changed its name to the Connectivity Standards Alliance (CSA) and will broaden its scope.
Bandwidth and Data RateNB-IoT uses a very narrow bandwidth (200 kHz), compared to Cat-M1 which uses 1.4 MHz. As a result the maximum data rate for NB-IoT is around 250 kb per second. Compared to Cat-M1 - up to 1 Mbps.
LTE Advanced Pro is the next evolution of LTE that might make practical gigabit mobile internet a reality, as well as begin to lay the groundwork for technologies that for 5G, including things like MIMO (multiple antennas) technology and use of unused spectrum in the 5 GHz LTE-U band.narrowband iot
Analysis of Narrow Band FM The deviation will be controlled by the constant kf. The frequency variation is minimal and the FM signal's spectrum has a compact band for tiny values of kf. As a result, it is known as the narrow band FM.
Using light of particular blue and green wavelengths, narrow-band imaging is an imaging technique for endoscopic diagnostic medical examinations that brings out the details of some areas of the mucosa's surface.
When the message bandwidth of a communications system greatly outweighs the channel coherence bandwidth, the system is considered wideband.
Smart meter reading, agriculture, logistics, smart city solutions, and more areas find use for NB-IoT. It is ideally suited for underground modules because of its capacity to transfer massive volumes of data, particularly in difficult-to-reach places. Use cases for NB-IoT include: Digital metering (electricity, gas, and water meter)