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Skin cancer incidence and death statistics

Skin cancer incidence and death statistics

Skin cancer incidence and death statistics

In Hong Kong, summer is very long and the temperature is very high. Coupled with the intensification of global warming and the increasing intensity of the sun, skin cancer has gradually become a disease of high concern. handheld dermatoscope In Hong Kong, 1,147 new cases were recorded in 2016, accounting for 3.6% of the total number of new cancer cases, of which 1,063 were non-melanoma skin cancers and 84 were melanoma skin cancers. If calculated per 100,000 population, the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer is 14.5 percent, compared to 1.1 percent for melanoma. Looking at the 34 years between 1983 and 2016, the annual incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer has generally been on the rise, but the incidence of melanoma skin cancer has been similar from year to year.

The death rate for non-melanoma skin cancer was 0.4%, and the death rate for melanoma skin cancer was 0.7% per 100,000 people. electronic dermatoscope In 2017, a total of 78 people died from skin cancer, accounting for 0.5% of all cancer deaths in Hong Kong, including 26 cases of non-melanoma and 52 cases of melanoma skin cancer. For a total of 37 years, from 1981 to 2017, non-melanoma skin cancer mortality showed a declining trend as measured by age standardization; However, melanoma skin cancer deaths are on the rise.

Body reaction

Common Skin Cancer Symptoms

The symptoms of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers differ. Let's start with non-melanomas, which can be broadly divided into two types. 365nm UV Lamp The first, called basal cell carcinoma, accounts for about 70 percent of all skin cancers. Typically, small patches of pearly colored smooth skin appear on the head, neck, and upper body, with shiny or knob-like red bumps on the surface that occasionally bleed and may grow scaly and flat red scabs. In addition, the patient may feel itchiness here. This type of skin cancer generally grows slowly and rarely spreads to other areas. If the patient catches it in time, it can usually be treated.

The second type of non-melanoma skin cancer, called squamous cell carcinoma, accounts for about 30 percent of all skin cancers. The patient's face, neck, forearm, back of hand, lower leg and other areas are affected, may appear raised scaly hard, occasionally bleeding. Unless symptoms appear in the ear or lips, cancer cells grow slowly and are generally not difficult to treat.

In the case of melanoma skin cancer, the skin usually develops new black spots, or old spots or moles grow, change shape, or fade for weeks to months. Unlike normal skin spots or moles, melanomas have irregular shapes or even uneven surfaces with no fixed color. It may be brown, black, white, blue, red or gray. In addition, some patients may have nodular melanoma skin cancer, which looks like small lumps, black, red or even pink, that proliferate quickly and can spread to other areas, requiring removal as soon as possible.

Long-term exposure

Causes of skin cancer

Skin cancer is often associated with prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light. Normally, the skin needs to absorb ultraviolet light to produce vitamin D and promote bone growth. However, prolonged exposure to the hot sun can cause the skin to turn red, burn and ache and then flake off, which may also damage the genes of the skin, forming genetic mutations that allow cells to grow out of control and lead to skin cancer.

Please consult a doctor immediately

Skin cancer risk factors

While the risk of skin cancer cannot be ignored, individuals with the following characteristics are generally at higher risk:

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A close relative has had melanoma

Has been exposed to the sun for a long time

The skin is fair, not tanned, but burns easily.

Red or blonde hair

The eyes are blue or green

Have a weak immune system, such as having received tissue and organs for transplant, or have tested positive for HIV

At work, people are often exposed to petrochemicals, such as arsenic, bitumen and coking coal

Have had skin cancer or radiation therapy.

Of course, the most effective way to prevent skin cancer is to avoid prolonged exposure to the sun. At the same time, self-examination is also a feasible method, first to photograph the whole body skin, and then from time to time to compare with the original, including the soles of the feet, toes, toe nails and other parts. If you notice a new spot on your skin that doesn't look like other spots nearby, or the spot gets larger, deformed, or discolored, or the wound doesn't heal for a long time, record the date. If it is not clear after a month, seek medical attention as soon as possible.

Please consult a doctor immediately

Skin cancer diagnosis

The diagnosis of skin cancer varies depending on the type. Melanoma skin cancer is dark and usually grows in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. You can usually tell with the naked eye. However, in some cases, it is not possible to tell whether a cell is benign or malignant based on its appearance alone, and a biopsy is required. The doctor will apply local anesthesia to the suspected cancer growth area, then remove a small piece of tissue with a small scalpel and send it to a laboratory to see if the relevant cells are benign or malignant under a microscope.

Since most skin cancers appear on the surface of the skin and can grow more slowly and spread less to other parts of the body, there is no need for more in-depth testing to stage the cancer. However, if the patient's skin cancer recurs after being cured, it is more likely to spread, and the doctor will gently touch the lymph nodes near the cancer to check for swelling, or even make a biopsy.

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